Augmentation mammoplasty is a type of plastic surgery for breast augmentation and correction of its shape. The operation is carried out with the help of special implants, which almost in no way feel inferior to the natural mammary glands.
What it is
Breast augmentation with implants is plastic surgery, thanks to which it is possible to correct the mammary glands. This technique is applied to women who have breast prolapse, a change in its shape and volume, for example, as a result of a child or breastfeeding.
Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the methods of surgical breast augmentation and correction of its shape.
The operation is prescribed after a comprehensive examination, carried out in a hospital.
In this case, implants of various shapes, contents and volumes are used, which can be installed under the fascia, gland or pectoralis major muscle.
The location of the incisions may also vary. To exclude the development of complications after the intervention, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the rules of care.
To make the mammary glands more natural after surgery, the specialist will give recommendations on the choice of the size of the implants.
Types of prostheses
All materials are subdivided into several varieties.
They are classified into several types.
Made up of a cohesive gel of varying degrees of density. The peculiarity of such implants is that when damaged, they do not leak.
The filling is a physiological solution. These products are less popular than others, but their cost will be slightly lower. Plus, they have a shorter shelf life, and when worn under the skin, lumps and bumps can form.
Placement of the selected implants is a key step in augmentation mammoplasty.
The process of rehabilitation and its pain depend on their correct location and contact with the tissues.
With the correct actions of the surgeon, most complications can be easily avoided.
It is a new generation bioimplant. Has full compatibility with the human body, which almost completely eliminates the risk of their rejection. The hydrogel has many positive properties, and its quality is in no way inferior to silicone prostheses. Their advantage is elasticity, safety and non-toxicity.
Experts distinguish between round and drop-shaped implants. The former are used with a slight modification of the mammary glands. Breast augmentation with round implants is suitable for women who want to acquire a natural breast shape.
By surface type and profile
The surface of the prosthesis can be smooth or rough.
A distinction is also made between high and low implants.
When choosing a product, the doctor should take into account the age, weight, height, morphology, structure of the breastbone, the condition of the mammary glands and their size.
To insert an implant into the chest cavity, specialists use three types of tissue dissection, as a result of which the vacuum space is replaced.
Breast tissue is dissected at the location of the areola. The main advantage of this technique is that the doctor has the opportunity not only to correct the shape of the nipple, but also to change its position.
The scar after surgery almost completely disappears over time.
An incision is made along the crease line under the breast. In terms of scar invisibility, this method is considered the most convenient, since the suture is located where the mammary gland covers the skin of the torso.
Includes incisions in the area near the armpits. The method is sloppy and more complicated; scars will be visible. In addition, in this case, it is difficult to correctly place the implants in the pocket between the mammary gland and the muscle.
Arrangement of prostheses
They can be placed under the fascia muscles, under the mammary gland, or under the pectoralis major muscle. A combined method is often used, in which several locating tactics are combined at the same time.
To determine this indicator, the following values should be taken into account:
- pointto access;
- volumesurgical intervention;
- anatomicalpeculiaritiesand the desired size of the prosthesis;
- presence of a loved onerestrictionsto the operation.
Plastic surgery has three categories of complexity.
The first one
The 1st degree of complexity augmentation mammoplasty involves re-areolar access and endoprostheses. At the same time, the method is characterized by moderate trauma and minimal surgical intervention.
The patient's condition is satisfactory. Prostheses with a vertical scar are made; suggests a moderate level of intervention and trauma.
There are relative limitations that can lead to complications. Anchoring is performed, during which the implants are installed.
Mammoplasty is performed not only to improve the appearance of the mammary glands, but also to remove deformities and other defects.
The main indications for plastic surgery are:
- saggingbreast or areola prolapse, which can be against the background of rapid weight loss;
- changeshapefollowing breastfeeding or childbirth;
- poorly executedPlasticbefore;
- deformationcongenital roundness.
However, the main factor remains the aesthetic transformation.
Breast correction with gel or silicone prostheses has its own absolute and relative limits.
The first group includes:
- diseasesserious internal organs;
- ageup to 18 years;
- breast periodfood;
- mentaldeviations and epileptic seizures;
- violationcoagulabilitysome blood;
- infections. . .
Among the relative contraindications are:
- fibrous knotsinside the breast;
- syphilisand HIV;
- chronic formHepatitis A;
- diseasesautoimmunesystems, for example, rheumatism, nephritis, scleroderma;
- varicosedilated veins.
In addition, surgery for diabetes mellitus at the compensation stage is not recommended. The operation should be postponed during menstruation or with an unreasonable increase in body temperature.
Augmentation mammoplasty includes preparation.
An important point is the visit of certain specialists. The surgeon examines the mammary glands, the condition of the skin in this area, determines the size and volume of the breast. In addition, the doctor will talk about the actions during surgery, the consequences and the result.
A consultation with a gynecologist, mammologist and therapist will reveal the existing restrictions on the operation. The anesthesiologist will help establish the presence of individual intolerance and a tendency to develop an allergic reaction to the drugs and materials used.
After that, the patient is referred for laboratory research, which may include the following tests:
- blood and urine;
- for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis;
- sugar test;
- by group and Rh factor;
The instrumental examination includes the performance of fluorography, X-ray, EKG, and ultrasound.
In the presence of pathological processes occurring in a chronic form, it will be necessary to draw a conclusion of the attending physician, which will indicate the duration of remission.
If no contraindication to surgery has been identified, a woman at the preparation stage should follow a number of other recommendations.
No later than a week and a half before the due date, you should stop smoking and drinking alcohol. You cannot expose the body to stressful situations and nervous overwork. You will also need to stop taking medicines that help reduce blood clotting.
Arrival at the clinic is possible the day before or directly on the day of surgery. Before that, at night, the doctor may advise the patient to take a sedative, which will help relieve nervous tension and ensure good sleep. In the morning at the hospital, the woman's blood pressure and body temperature are measured.
The specialist then administers general anesthesia. The surface of the skin at the level of the mammary glands is treated with an antiseptic solution, catheters are installed, and the body is connected to a special device that allows you to monitor the condition of the body during the operation.
Once the anesthetic has worked, the doctor proceeds directly to the manipulation itself. An incision of the desired length is made in a preselected area. The tissues are gently detached to form a pocket in which the implant will be placed later. To stop the bleeding, the vessels are cauterized.
Then the surgeon removes the stent and places it in the desired position through the incision. After carrying out all manipulations, a suture and a fixing bandage are applied to the wound. The mammary glands are supported by corrective underwear, which will prevent the implant from moving to the side.
First of all, proper care of the wound surface is necessary, which will not only prevent the formation of pustular formations, but also speed up the healing process.
Usually, self-absorbing sutures are applied to the incision, which does not require removal. After about 7 days, the patient will only have to remove the nodules that will protrude above the surface of the skin.
To avoid the appearance of scars, you will need to apply a bandage to the seam and wear a corset.
Since in the first days after the operation the woman will be disturbed by pronounced pain, the specialist will recommend taking pain relievers to eliminate it. Antibiotics are given to reduce the risk of infection.
To relieve puffiness for two weeks, you can not take a hot shower and bath, expose the body to any physical activity. To avoid capsular contracture, it is necessary to massage the breast, but this can be done no earlier than 2 weeks after implantation.
For 5 days you must refuse to visit the sauna, public baths and solarium. Prohibited and tanning in full sun.
Particular attention should be paid to diet during the recovery period. Food should be light and easy to digest. The diet should include more fruits and vegetables containing iron, fortified cocktails.
All possible side effects are divided into two groups.
This category includes the formation of bruises, microhematomas, swelling and pain. Such phenomena are not dangerous for human health and disappear on their own within a few days.
This group includes:
- openingbleeding- vascular lesions contribute to the development of complications;
- seroma- appears, as a rule, a few hours after the intervention, therefore the patient should be in stationary conditions for 1 to 3 days;
- losssensitivitynipple-areola complex - often occurs as a result of damage to the tactile nerve;
- suppurationat the suture site - the main reason for the appearance of a complication is non-compliance with septic and antiseptic rules;
- educationkeloidscars and enlarged tissues;
- break ordeflation(expiration) of the prosthesis;
- capsularfibrous contracture.
Each of the above consequences requires immediate medical attention.
Augmentation mammoplasty is a complex surgical procedure that requires a highly qualified surgeon. Therefore, before deciding on breast augmentation with the help of implants, you should weigh the pros and cons and take seriously the choice of the clinic where the manipulation will be performed.